Duración subóptima del sueño y fenotipo circadiano en mujeres adultas residentes de Valencia, Venezuela atendidas en jornadas de salud. Perfil cardiometabólico asociado

Nelina Ruiz-Fernández, Doris Nobrega, Indira Varela, Yolima Fernández, Claudia Mendoza, Jhon Jesus, Gabriel Villalobos, Cesar Vega, María Yoris, Dessire Zamora

Resumen


Objetivo: Evaluar la duración del sueño y fenotipos circadianos y su asociación con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, de estilo de vida e indicadores de riesgo cardiometabólico en mujeres adultas.
Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal de 108 mujeres adultas residentes de la ciudad de Valencia, Venezuela atendidas en jornadas de salud. Se establecieron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y estilo de vida, duración
de sueño autoinformada durante la semana, fin de semana y ponderada (corta: < 7 h o larga: > 9 h) y fenotipo circadiano o cronotipo mediante la versión reducida del cuestionario de matutinidad de Horne y Östberg. Se
midieron presión arterial, peso, talla, circunferencia de cintura y biomarcadores en sangre venosa. Se calcularon tres puntajes de estatus cardiometabólico. Se estableció hipertensión arterial (HTA) y síndrome metabólico (SM).
Resultados: Se encontró duración corta de sueño ponderada en 21,3 % de las mujeres y duración larga ponderada en 16,7 %. El 28,7 % mostró cronotipo claramente matutino; 38 %, moderadamente matutino; 32,4 %, indefinido y
0,9 %, moderadamente vespertino, sin casos de cronotipo claramente vespertino. La duración corta de sueño y los cronotipos matutinos fueron más frecuentes en mujeres mayores de 40 años. La duración de sueño se asoció a estado civil, ocupación y condición de exfumadora; los cronotipos se asociaron a posmenopausia. La duración corta se asoció a obesidad abdominal e hipertensión arterial (HTA), elevación de gamma-glutamil transferasa y ácido úrico. La duración larga se asoció a glicemia y transaminasas más elevadas. El cronotipo claramente matutino se asoció a HTA, SM y número de componentes del SM presentes. La duración corta de sueño y el cronotipo claramente matutino predijeron elevado riesgo cardiometabólico, al ajustar por edad y posmenopausia esta asociación desapareció.
Conclusiones: La duración subóptima del sueño y los fenotipos circadianos se asociaron a variables socio demográficas, clínicas y de riesgo cardiometabólico. La duración corta de sueño y el cronotipo claramente matutino predijeron elevado riesgo cardiometabólico.


Palabras clave


Sueño; Privación de sueño; Ritmo circadiano; Enfermedades cardiovasculares; Síndrome metabólico

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