Inmunología del cáncer II: bases moleculares y celulares de la carcinogénesis

Joel de León, Arturo Pareja

Resumen


El desarrollo tecnológico de las últimas dos décadas aplicado a la investigación científica preclínica y clínica, ha permitido expandir significativamente los conocimientos acerca de la biología de las células neoplásicas. La caracterización
de las alteraciones genéticas y epigenéticas que sustentan la carcinogénesis, la subclasificación molecular de los tumores, la comprensión de las interacciones que establecen las células neoplásicas con otras poblaciones celulares
en el microambiente tumoral, así como la descripción de las bases moleculares que permiten explicar la influencia de factores como ejercicio, la dieta y la composición de la microbiota en la progresión tumoral, han contribuido a
sustentar la relevancia del tratamiento de precisión en cáncer. Este trabajo revisa los llamados sellos del cáncer y sus cualidades habilitantes, o sea, aquellas propiedades inherentes a las células neoplásicas que le permiten evadir los mecanismos intrínsecos y extrínsecos que controlan la carcinogénesis. Con este trabajo damos continuidad a la serie sobre inmunología del cáncer que iniciamos con la presentación de las bases moleculares y celulares de la respuesta inmune antitumoral y que, finalmente, abordará la manipulación de la relación entre el sistema inmune y las neoplasias como estrategia de terapia para el cáncer.


Palabras clave


Carcinogénesis; Microambiente tumoral; Proteínas oncogénicas

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